The Problem Of Ankyloglossia In Infants

Submitted by: Smile Concepts

Tongue tie is a very common problem which many newborn babies are born with. The other name for this problem is ankyloglossia. Under this condition, the membrane that connects the tongue to the gums and the jaw bone is very short. Due to this short tissue, the baby can have certain verbal disorders. In addition to that, it may also cause the recession of the gum tissue due to excess pressure on it. Such gum recession will result in creating gaps in the teeth.

The problems that a tongue tie baby has to face are:

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The infant may face difficulty during breastfeeding and feeding with a bottle. It becomes very difficult for the baby to maintain suction. When the baby is tongue tied, the stretching of the tongue becomes tough and painful with short tissue and thus the baby is not able to get a grasp of the nipple. This problem can also cause feeding problems to the mother like low milk supply and untimely weaning. She may have to face a lot of pain while nursing a tongue tied baby.

Not being able to get sufficient milk affects the baby s health. Such babies fail to gain the desirable weight. Getting proper nutrition is very important for the proper development of a baby. Failing in this will make the baby vulnerable to weight loss and it will not be able to develop a strong immune system to be able to fight against diseases.

Due to improper grasp to the nipple while feeding, the baby often swallows air which causes severe wind pain.

This problem, if solved early, results in maintaining good health of the babies with no further issues. Two types of tongue tie issues may exist, one in which the tissue is attached between the lips and the gums and the other in which the tissue is attached between the tongue and the gums. These verbal disorders can be removed by doing an uncomplicated and short surgery. The two popular methods of operating on the tongue are using scissors or with the help of laser. The one using laser is a painless method requiring no cuts or injection but just an anaesthesia gel. A dentist is well qualified to perform such kinds of operations.

Once the surgery is done, the infant will recover from the surgery very soon due to the inherent characteristic of new born babies to improve fast. If the infant has recovered and the mother is still lactating, the baby can soon become able to breast- feed normally. In many cases, the parents fail to provide timely cure to the Tongue tie baby due to confusion over medical personnel or because of failing to diagnose the problem. This may result in causing adverse effects on the speaking ability of the baby when he grows up. The surgical procedure is exactly the same for an infant and the grown up child but it may require a great effort to make the child mentally prepared for the surgery. Thus it is important for the parents to observe the baby while feeding to diagnose the problem early.

About the Author: Tongue tie is mostly found in infants and small age children.It is necessary to take your baby to doctors since it may cause a serious problem in future.For more information visit:


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Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Thursday, June 23, 2011

NASA’s Cassini–Huygens spacecraft has discovered evidence for a large-scale saltwater reservoir beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The data came from the spacecraft’s direct analysis of salt-rich ice grains close to the jets ejected from the moon. The study has been published in this week’s edition of the journal Nature.

Data from Cassini’s cosmic dust analyzer show the grains expelled from fissures, known as tiger stripes, are relatively small and usually low in salt far away from the moon. Closer to the moon’s surface, Cassini found that relatively large grains rich with sodium and potassium dominate the plumes. The salt-rich particles have an “ocean-like” composition and indicate that most, if not all, of the expelled ice and water vapor comes from the evaporation of liquid salt-water. When water freezes, the salt is squeezed out, leaving pure water ice behind.

Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph also recently obtained complementary results that support the presence of a subsurface ocean. A team of Cassini researchers led by Candice Hansen of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, measured gas shooting out of distinct jets originating in the moon’s south polar region at five to eight times the speed of sound, several times faster than previously measured. These observations of distinct jets, from a 2010 flyby, are consistent with results showing a difference in composition of ice grains close to the moon’s surface and those that made it out to the E ring, the outermost ring that gets its material primarily from Enceladean jets. If the plumes emanated from ice, they should have very little salt in them.

“There currently is no plausible way to produce a steady outflow of salt-rich grains from solid ice across all the tiger stripes other than salt water under Enceladus’s icy surface,” said Frank Postberg, a Cassini team scientist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany.

The data suggests a layer of water between the moon’s rocky core and its icy mantle, possibly as deep as about 50 miles (80 kilometers) beneath the surface. As this water washes against the rocks, it dissolves salt compounds and rises through fractures in the overlying ice to form reserves nearer the surface. If the outermost layer cracks open, the decrease in pressure from these reserves to space causes a plume to shoot out. Roughly 400 pounds (200 kilograms) of water vapor is lost every second in the plumes, with smaller amounts being lost as ice grains. The team calculates the water reserves must have large evaporating surfaces, or they would freeze easily and stop the plumes.

“We imagine that between the ice and the ice core there is an ocean of depth and this is somehow connected to the surface reservoir,” added Postberg.

The Cassini mission discovered Enceladus’ water-vapor and ice jets in 2005. In 2009, scientists working with the cosmic dust analyzer examined some sodium salts found in ice grains of Saturn’s E ring but the link to subsurface salt water was not definitive. The new paper analyzes three Enceladus flybys in 2008 and 2009 with the same instrument, focusing on the composition of freshly ejected plume grains. In 2008, Cassini discovered a high “density of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected” in geysers erupting from the moon. The icy particles hit the detector target at speeds between 15,000 and 39,000 MPH (23,000 and 63,000 KPH), vaporizing instantly. Electrical fields inside the cosmic dust analyzer separated the various constituents of the impact cloud.

“Enceladus has got warmth, water and organic chemicals, some of the essential building blocks needed for life,” said Dennis Matson in 2008, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“This finding is a crucial new piece of evidence showing that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life can be sustained on icy bodies orbiting gas giant planets,” said Nicolas Altobelli, the European Space Agency’s project scientist for Cassini.

“If there is water in such an unexpected place, it leaves possibility for the rest of the universe,” said Postberg.

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British Gas to increase electricity, gas prices

Sunday, July 10, 2011

British-based utility company Centrica, which holds ownership of British Gas, has announced its intentions to increase the prices of domestic electricity and gas later this year. On August 18, 2011, the company plans to raise the costs of gas and electrical supplies by eighteen and sixteen per cent, respectively. According to The Guardian, nine million customers will be affected by these changes.

British price comparison website uSwitch has reported that the “[a]verage household bill for a dual fuel British Gas customer will now go up from £1,096 to £1,288”. Mike O’Connor, the chief executive officer of consumer organisation Consumer Focus, has claimed that the announcement “will send a shock wave across the country” and will place an increasing amount of difficulties “on stretched household budgets. Consumers […] rightly question whether prices are fair.”

Phil Bentley, a managing director for British Gas, has claimed that value increases like this are “an issue facing all energy suppliers”. A director for British Gas, named Ian Peters, has claimed that “a fair return” will be made after the changes occur.

In 2010, British Gas experienced its largest ever profit, making £742 million (US$1,192 million, €835 million). Meanwhile, Centrica achieved £2.4 billion (US$3.8 billion, €2.7 billion) in profits. Richard Lloyd from product sampling charity Which? criticised the decision to raise prices, calling the declaration “unwelcome but unsurprising” for British Gas consumers.

Previously in December 2010, British Gas increased the price of its gas by 6.9%, which equates to £43 (US$69, €48). At the same time, the company’s electricity prices were raised by 6.7%, or £28 (US$45, €32). On Friday, Chris Huhne, the secretary of the Energy and Climate Change Select Committee, said that British electricity businesses must modify themselves so as to avoid “the cycle of fossil fuel addiction. Alternatives like renewables and nuclear power must be allowed to become the dominant component of our energy mix,” said Huhne.

This news comes to light as Scottish Power, a rival energy company to British Gas, announced last month their intentions to up the prices of their electricity and gas supplies by ten and nineteen per cent respectively.

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California judge disqualified from predatory lending case

Thursday, December 27, 2012

Judge James A. Stoelker of Santa Clara County, California Superior Court was disqualified from hearing a case on predatory lending practices the day before Christmas, on a technicality. The case was filed by David and Salma Merritt of Santa Clara County against multiple defendants, including Countrywide, Bank of America, and First American Title, among others.

The Merritts had challenged Judge Stoelker’s involvement in the case, claiming many of his rulings had favored his former clients even when law would have indicated otherwise. Some of the defendants are Judge Stoelker’s former clients.

The events leading to this case began in 2006 when the Merritts accepted a home loan from Countrywide. At that time, Countrywide was advertising 30-year mortgages at between 1 and 3 percent interest. The Merritts received a “good faith estimate” consistent with those advertisements. They claim that Countrywide representatives tricked them into signing loan documents that were subsequently altered to appear to commit them to an obligation they had not agreed to.

A review of similar predatory lending cases filed by individuals in California found that all had been settled in at most 9 months, usually in favor of the banks. Merritt v. Mozilo has continued in the courts for much longer, celebrating its third anniversary last Saturday. The Merritts’ claims are consistent with published statements by Eileen Foster, former Executive Vice President of Fraud Risk Management at Countrywide, that fraud was endemic to certain parts of Countrywide.

Theirs was the only case heard in Department 9 that morning in recognition of Christmas. That hearing was scheduled, because the Sixth District of the California Court of Appeals (case number H038883) required the Santa Clara County Superior Court to (a) give all parties an opportunity to be heard regarding the possible disqualification of Judge Stoelker and (b) reply to the appellate court by December 26. This appellate ruling was only issued on November 26, and Judge Mark H. Pierce did not schedule the required hearing until December 12. The notice for this hearing required parties to file responses ten days before, which meant that the parties only had two days to prepare their replies.

On August 16, the Merritts learned Judge Stoelker had represented defendants in this case on numerous occasions before he was appointed to the bench in December 2010 and had not disclosed this fact to the Merritts. The next day they filed a Verified Statement of Disqualification asking Stoekler to recuse himself. The California Code of Civil Procedure (CCP) 170.3(c)(3) and (4) [confirmed in the 1988 appellate decision in Lewis v. Superior Court] give a judge ten days to respond to to such a motion. Stoelker replied on the eleventh day.

“All Rise” was heard at 9:04 AM local time Monday morning, whereupon Judge Pierce entered the courtroom. Attending by phone were attorneys James Goldberg representing Bank of America and Brian Craft representing First American Title. David Merritt was present representing himself. Goldberg had filed a brief asserting that the Merritts’ Verified Statement of Disqualification was served upon Judge Stoelker on August 17 but was not filed, as witnessed by the fact that it was not listed on the docket. Judge Pierce reported that he had checked the files and found that this Statement had indeed been filed, and he didn’t know why it was not on the docket. Attorney Goldberg suggested that the fact that the Statement was not on the docket may have contributed to Judge Stoelker’s failure to respond within the ten day limit. Judge Pierce replied, “That’s a stretch.”

Attorney Craft asked about next steps, since all action in this case had been stayed by the appellate court pending resolution of this issue. Judge Pierce then replied that Judge Manoukian would be handling discovery in this case, replacing Judge Stoelker in that capacity. He further stated that a reply to the appellate court had been prepared concurring with the appellate court’s disqualification of Judge Stoelker and asked Mr. Merritt to retrieve that order from the clerk in the courtroom and file it as usual with the clerk’s office. He also noted that this action would lift the stay. Other actions in this case could now proceed with the next steps being scheduled January 22, 2013, or later.

This is the second appellate reversal of decisions by this superior court in this case. The first reversal came on December 19, 2011, when the appellate court reinstated Wells Fargo as a defendant.

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Computer Security: The Essential Components For A Safe Computer

Submitted by: Sara Chambers

These days, computers are almost as common in households as telephones. Computers themselves do not cause any threat to individual security. When connected with networks and the chaos that is the World Wide Web, computers have become the tools that identity thieves and hackers use to extrapolate this chaos. In order to establish computer security, software companies have created devices to ward off the hazards and hassles of viruses, spyware, pop-ups and spam.

The first of these creations is anti-virus software. There are two main companies that offer this software: McAfee and Norton. These programs work to scan the files on your computer and check them for attributes that are in viruses or are often linked with viruses. These traits or attributes are often called virus definitions and need to be downloaded on a relatively regular basis. In addition to the files on your computer, files on CDs, floppy discs and e-mails can and should be filed. There is no question on this one: anti-virus software is vital to computer security.

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Next on the list is spyware scanning software. Spyware occurs when certain websites run programs in the back ground of your computer while gleaning information from it. The information can be as benign as tracking what type of websites you look at, to actually acquiring passwords. Regardless of the type of spyware, it can slow your computer to a crawl and needs to be removed from your computer. Two popular software options are Spy Sweeper and Ad-ware.

Last, but certainly not least are pop-up blockers and span filters. Not only are pop-ups and spam annoying, but these often contain the spyware scanning software explained above. In addition, they can slow your computer down incredibly. And when you are angry at your computer, your computer is not secure!

In addition to these software items, there are a few more tricks you can use to keep your computer and your information secure. Password secure everything you can, and when you create the passwords, don t make them easy. Do not use your name, your birthday or your social security number. And, if you are on an unsecured wireless network, do not check your bank statements. These networks allow several people on them at one time. Remember, hackers are smart. You have to be smarter!

About the Author: Sara Chambers is a marketing consultant and an internet content manager for


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Oakland, California record release party catches fire

Sunday, December 4, 2016

A fire broke out at a record release party in Oakland, California late on Friday night. Nine were confirmed dead the following morning with the death toll rising to 24 the next day.

The warehouse, known as Ghost Ship, was hosting a party for the release of the newest album by Joel “Golden Donna” Shanahan. It is in Oakland’s Fruitvale neighborhood, a mix of commercial and residential buildings nestled together. The structure is one block away from Fire Station No. 13 and at least 55 firefighters spent four hours containing and stopping the fire which began at approximately 11:30 p.m.

Firefighters and police cordoned off the block to spectators. The two-story, mixed-use structure also housed the artist collective Satya Yuga who hosted the show and is being searched by firefighters. Out of approximately 50 attendees, at least 25 were declared missing. Shanahan was among the survivors.

Efforts to rescue partygoers were compounded by the roof caving in during the inferno as well as the stacks of furniture, art pieces, and supplies which turned into obstacles for first responders.

Oakland mayor Libby Schaaf:


Last night’s fire was an immense tragedy. I am grateful to our first responders for their efforts to deal with this deadly fire. Our focus right now is on the victims and their families and ensuring that we have a full accounting for everyone who was impacted by this tragedy. We are fully committed to sharing as much information as we can as quickly as possible.

The structure is owned by Chor N. Ng, who is also the proprietor of several other buildings in the East Bay. On November 13 Ng was cited by the city for having stacks of garbage in and around the warehouse. Most fatalities were reported to have occurred in the upstairs portion of the building where escape was hampered by unstable stairs and miscellaneous art pieces lying in the way. The building lacked any smoke detectors and sprinklers; fire extinguishers were found outside of the premises.

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UK Government to look again at drink-drive limit

Thursday, December 3, 2009

The U.K. Government announced today it has commissioned a report on whether the legal alcohol limit for driving, and whether the laws on driving under the influence of drugs, should be tightened. The report, by Oxford University academic Sir Peter North, should be completed by April for the Secretary of State for Transport, Lord Adonis. Lord Adonis said, “Drink-driving was involved in 430 road deaths in 2008 and research suggests that drug-driving is also a key concern for the public.”

One option that will be considered is whether to lower the limit from 80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood to 50 milligrams. This would bring the UK into line with other European countries; a proposal to change the law in Scotland under devolved powers has already been put forward by the Scottish Government. A limit of 50 milligrams would mean that an average person would not be permitted to drive after drinking a standard measure of wine or a pint of beer.

The news was applauded by representatives of motoring organisations. The Automobile Association‘s President, Edmund King, said he was “pleased that these complex issues will be addressed”. The RAC‘s spokesman said drug-driving is a “growing problem”, and lowering the alcohol limit would reduce fatalities. However, the Conservative Party took a different view, with Shadow Transport Secretary, Theresa Villiers, saying they were “yet to be convinced of the case for an across-the-board reduction in the drink-driving limit”, and, would certainly oppose any suggestion of penalties being reduced.

Sir Peter North, 73, is a former Principal of Jesus College, Oxford and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. A former member of the Law Commission, he chaired the Road Traffic Law Review between 1985 and 1988, leading to the Road Traffic Act of 1991. His 1997 report on parades and marches in Northern Ireland led to the foundation of the Parades Commission. Commenting on his task he stated, “[t]he challenge is to see whether changes in the law and its processes can reduce casualties”, adding that whilst the issues “are not easy to resolve”, he intended to consult “widely”.

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How To Reduce Shopping Cart Abandonment}

Submitted by: Live Chat Agent

Shopping cart abandonment refers to a scenario where shoppers put items in their online shopping carts but then leave before completing the purchase. It is one of the biggest nightmares for everyone involved in online business because it is a great hindrance to their success. Cart abandonment needs to be eliminated so as to profit from the business. Here are the most effective tips for reducing the shopping cart abandonment to a large extent:

Offer live chat feature:

Visitors may be there on your site to make a purchase, compare certain offers on products or they may be just browsing through various websites. Whatever the case be, there is a probability of having queries about products or services offered by you. Now, in the absence of any online assistance, they may just abandon your site due to unanswered queries. On the other hand, if you have a live chat feature enabled on your website, visitors and customers would be able to get their queries resolved in real time. This would help increase the conversion rate and reduce shopping cart abandonment.

Provide free shipping:

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According to a research, 44 percent of online shoppers who abandon their carts do so because of shipping and handling costs. Though shipping is a matter of just a few dollars in many situations but the cost of shipping is enough to lose a potential customer. Thus, you can consider offering free shipping in order to reduce shopping cart abandonment. It can actually act as a major selling point and an incentive for customers to shop with you versus your competitors.

Offer multiple payment options:

You should aim at offering as much convenience to your customers as possible during checkout. You can do this by providing support for services like PayPal and Google Wallet. These services reinforce the ease of payment and increase the possibility of impulse purchases.

Include comparison pages, social proofs, and security badges:

Customers never want to regret spending their money. Instilling a sense of trust in your customers is quite important in order to make them buy from you. You can make them feel confident about purchasing from you by allowing direct feature comparisons of various products and brands. You can also consider offering clear price comparisons, providing social proofs and security badges. This would help alleviate their insecurities by showcasing how your products have helped others. Moreover, this would help convince them about trusting the business with their credit card information. Apart from instilling confidence and exempting the fear of buyer’s remorse, this would help reduce cart abandonment.


Whenever people search for products or services, chances are they pursue the first Google search results page. Therefore, you need to employ an efficacious strategy that ranks you higher in SERPs. SEO techniques, when combined with effective content marketing, can help your company to climb in the rankings and improve your visibility online. This further helps in generating leads effectively.

Inbound marketing:

Inbound marketing refers to the technique for drawing customers to products and services via content marketing, social media marketing, and search engine optimization. It provides information, an improved customer experience and builds trust by offering potential customers information they value, through newsletters, blogs, and entries on social media platforms. Updated blogs, free webinars, signup forms etc can be used to capture your regular visitors as sales leads and increase your lead generation which will further boost your profits.

About the Author: Live chat Agent (




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US, UK embassies in Yemen close due to al-Qaeda threat

Monday, January 4, 2010

The United States and the United Kingdom closed their embassies in Yemen Sunday, pointing to ongoing terrorist threats. The closures came after the two nations pledged to boost counter-terrorism support to the Yemeni government.

The American embassy’s website said the threats come from al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, the group linked to the failed Christmas Day airplane bombing attempt in the United States. The message in part said, “The U.S. Embassy in Sana’a is closed today, January 3, 2010, in response to ongoing threats by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) to attack American interests in Yemen.”

Further adding, “On December 31, the U.S. Embassy sent a warden message to Americans citizens in Yemen to remind them of the continuing threat of terrorist actions and violence against American citizens and interests throughout the world. The U.S. Embassy reminds U.S. citizens to maintain a high level of vigilance and to practice enhanced security awareness.”

Deputy National Security Advisor for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism John O. Brennan said on CNN’s State of the Union with John King, “There are indications that al Qaeda is planning to carry out an attack against a target inside of Sana’a, possibly our embassy.” Brennan added, “And what we do is to take every measure possible to ensure the safety of our diplomats and citizens abroad, so the decision was made to close the embassy.”

The U.S. Embassy in Sana’a is closed today, January 3, 2010, in response to ongoing threats by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) to attack American interests in Yemen.

A spokesperson for the British Foreign Office said their embassy would be closed on Sunday and a decision to reopen would be made on Monday.

The closures come a day after U.S. General David Petraeus visited the capital, Sana’a, to discuss security issues with President Ali Abdullah Saleh. The general, who oversees the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, recently announced that the United States would more than double its security aid to the impoverished nation.

The United States gave $67 million last year to Yemen, the only country that receives more aid is Pakistan with $112 million, according to the Associated Press.

Yesterday, in his weekly radio address, President Barack Obama linked the suspect in the attempted bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 to al-Qaeda saying, “We know that he traveled to Yemen, a country grappling with crushing poverty and deadly insurgencies. It appears that he joined an affiliate of al-Qaeda, and that this group, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, trained him, equipped him with those explosives and directed him to attack that plane headed for America.”

Obama annouced, “So, as President, I’ve made it a priority to strengthen our partnership with the Yemeni government-training and equipping their security forces, sharing intelligence and working with them to strike al-Qaeda terrorists.”

Obama said that they had already results prior to the Christmas Day bombing attempt saying, “So, as President, I’ve made it a priority to strengthen our partnership with the Yemeni government-training and equipping their security forces, sharing intelligence and working with them to strike al-Qaeda terrorists.”

Britain has also announced plans to join with the United States in funding a counter-terrorism police unit in Yemen, as well as plans to hold an international conference on Yemeni security later this month.

Earlier today, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown told the BBC, “This is a new type of threat and it is from a new source which is obviously Yemen, but there are many other potential sources Somalia, as well as Afghanistan and Pakistan.”

Editor Hakim Almasmari, of the Yemen Post newspaper, thinks the conference might be advantageous if it results in more development projects for rural Yemen. However, he fears what any foreign-backed military attacks could mean.

“Al-Qaeda right now is not very strong,” Almasmari said. “Its followers are not more than 400 in all. However, if the U.S. does attack Yemen, al-Qaeda will get stronger and stronger because people who lose their families in the airstrikes will join al-Qaeda not because they want to but because they want revenge against the Americans and the Yemeni government for the attacks.”

The situation has gained new urgency as the government in Sana’a finds itself overwhelmed not only by the growing terrorist threat, but also two separate rebellions, one of which has become something of a proxy war, at least in rhetoric, between Iran and Saudi Arabia.

U.S. military experts have warned that vast reaches of the impoverished nation, with its booming population and dwindling resources, could spin permanently out of the government’s control.

Militant groups from Somalia said that they would send fighters to help aid al-Qaeda in Yemen. Yemen has vowed to keep foreign extremists out.

The U.S. embassy has faced attacks from the local al-Qaeda group before, with an assault outside its gates in 2008 that left 19 people – civilians and militants – dead.

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Indian Human Resources minister to reform technology sector

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Kapil Sibal, India’s Minister of Human Resource Development (HRD) held a meeting Monday to present his reform plans for the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) sector by increasing the entrance percentage to 80% and above in the class XII (final year) board exams. A three-member committee was set up to review the proposal.

Sibal said, “The present criteria is that students need to secure 60% in class XII for appearing in IIT-JEE. This is not acceptable”, pointing out that the current criteria where students getting more than 60% in the board exam of the twelfth class are eligible for IIT-JEE is not good enough and that it has to be raised to 80-85%.

He also stated that students undervalue final year board exams, preparing instead for the Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination (IIT-JEE); they enrol in coaching institutes and concentrate on their study material in order to enter IIT. He wants to abolish these “teaching shops.”

The meeting decided that they would set up two committees, one headed by Anil Kakodkar, Atomic Energy Commission (Chairman) and other by T. Ramasamy, Department of Science and Technology (Secretary). The first committee is scheduled to decide final year board percentage and the second one is scheduled to set the curriculum.

The Kakodkar committee also plans to decide how to abolish coaching institutes and how to move IIT field forward with a greater emphasis on research. The committee is expected to submit its report in the next six months. The minister also clarified that some of these will be implemented from the 2010 academic year and some from 2011.

The meeting was also expected to reduce the fee for African and South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries as their fees are higher than those of Indians. The review committee says that people of other countries are tempted to study in India but they refrain due to high fees. The Ramasamy committee is expected to submit its report in the next three months.

Lastly, the meeting said that it will appoint board members and directors on the basis of nominations and independent rank and power to ensure IIT’s activity.

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